Page 62 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 19

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5 6
J
e w i s h
B
o o k
A
n n u a l
of the whole
Shacharit.1
In 1956 a complete
Siddur
with the
Hebrew and Swedish translation, notes and explanations,
Siddur
Awaudas Habaure,
was edited by the greatest Orthodox com­
munity, in Malmo. It became very popular in all communities.
During the entire 19th century Jewish religious literature in
the German language was read by all cultivated Jewish families
in Sweden. It included educational books, prayer books, sermons,
journals, historical literature and novels. Nearly all Jewish edu­
cational books in Swedish are adaptations of foreign models.
To replace the losses after the Nazi destruction of Jewish books
during the Second World War, the Swedish section of World
Jewish Congress, under the supervision of Chief Rabbi Marcus
Ehrenpreis, issued a new edition of the well-known handy Roedel-
heim
Siddur.
It was titled
Shema Kolenu,
“for the destroyed Jewish
communities now to be rebuilt.” In January 1946, 50,000 copies
were printed in Stockholm, in Hebrew type only, with all German
words deleted. A
Machsor
for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur
was also printed in 1946 for the same purpose. Immediately after
the influx of Nazi victims, a considerable number of publications
in various languages were issued for the refugees, but only during
the first post-war years. Many of the rescued Jews ultimately left
Sweden, but those who remained soon became rooted in the
country and assumed its language.
The Contributions of the Rabbis
As Dr. Kurt Wilhelm (born 1900), Chief Rabbi of Stockholm
since 1948, has stated in his interesting article, “The Influence
of German Jewry on Jewish Communities in Scandinavia”
(Year
Book III,
Leo Baeck Institute, 1958), all Rabbis in Sweden have
been foreign born. It seems an oddity that Morris Jacob Raphall,
a well-known American Rabbi, was born in Stockholm.2
Dr. Wilhelm’s predecessors, Ludwig Lewysohn (1819-1901),
Gottlieb Klein (1852-1914), and the above-mentioned Chief
Rabbi Ehrenpreis, were all famous scholars. Lewysohn is known
especially as author of
Die Zoologie des Talmuds
(1858, one year
before his arrival in Sweden); Klein for his studies on the Jewish
origins of Christianity, the Shem ha-Mephorash, the Book of
Judith, the first Christian catechism (Didake), and the posthum­
ous
Studien ueber Paulus
(1918). Ehrenpreis, known as an
incisive Hebrew essayist, was among the Zionist pioneers. T o ­
gether with Herzl, he signed the invitation to the first Zionist
Congress. A few years after his arrival in Sweden in 1914 he
^ ‘Judarnes Andakts-Boener, Foerra Delen, Innehallande deras Hwardags-
Boener. Ifran Hebraiskan oefwersatt, Af N. Joelsson.” Stockholm 1804, 8:0.
Very rare.
2 See: C. Vilh. Jacobowsky: Morris Jacob Raphall (1798-1868),
Judisk
Tidskrift,
1954.