Page 118 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 25

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The anti-Jewish pogroms are a special chapter in the history of
Russian Jewry. On this subject are various collections of docu-
ments, eye-witness accounts, reports of investigating committees,
speeches, and the like. In the YIVO library are reports of Senators
Tureau and Kuzminsky delegated by the Tsarist Government to
investigate the causes of the Kiev and Odessa pogroms of 1905
and 1906, pamphlets of Jewish organizations on self-defense, and
a two-volume publication
Speeches on the Pogrom T ria ls
prefaced
by Prof. I.V. Luchitskii and V.G. Korolenko (Kiev, 1908). Of the
pogroms in the Ukraine during the Civil War, 1917-1919, there
are materials prepared by Jewish historians (E. Tcherikower,
Joseph Schechtman, L. Khazanovitsh and others), publications of
the Ukrainian nationalist groups in exile purposing to defend
themselves against anti-Semitic accusations, and pamphlets issued
by Soviet sources explicating the pogroms and anti-Semitism as
tools of the nationalist reaction and the kulaks. The trial of
Sholom Shwartzbart, who killed Petlura, is recorded in a steno-
graphic report
Les Proces des Pogromes
(Paris, 1928), which con-
tains the deposition of Maxim Gorki on behalf of the accused.
The dramatic fate of the Jewish-Soviet community, the early
flowering of its hopes for cultural and economic development
followed by suppression of all organized activities, is a subject
of profound import to scholars and students of the Russian and
Jewish scene. The YIVO library seems to possess between 75-80%
of the pertinent published material. Related to the area of Soviet
Jewry are materials on the activities of Jewish organizations
abroad involved in relief and rehabilitation of Soviet Jews. The
library has reports of these activities conducted by the American
Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, American Jewish Relief
Committee, Societe de Secours aux Juifs de Territoires de l’Ancien
Empire Russe, and politically sponsored organizations such as
Icor and Ambidjan.
Jewish Life in Poland
Research on Jewish life in Poland is represented in the YIVO
library by works of several generations of historians starting with
the earlier ones, H.J. Gurland, E.N. Frank, J. Rosenthal, Mathias
Bersohn, Al. Kraushar, Hilary Nussbaum, and ending with those
active now in Poland, in the Americas and in Israel. The im-
poverishment of the small Polish nobility and migration of the
rural population to the urban centers contributed to the rise of
Polish anti-Semitism in the second half of the 19th century which
produced a rich literature of pamphlets and articles seeking a
solution of the Jewish question. The YIVO library possesses a
wide variety of these pamphlets, ranging from writings of the
famous Polish novelist Eliza Orzeszkowa
O Zydach i Kw es tji