Page 94 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 37

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religious, moral and social implications o f the Holocaust. T he
questions raised and the positions first outlined by Rubenstein in
After Auschwitz
are developed and expanded in his subsequent
works published du r ing the 1970s, especially in
The Cunning of
History, Mass Death and the American Future
(1975) and in his
autobiography ,
Power Struggle
(1974). One may also note Rubens-
te in’s works
The Religious Imagination
and Morality and Eros
(1970), which offer un ique insights into the role psychoanalysis
may play in p resen t and fu tu re Jewish theological development.
W he ther Rubenstein’s views a re cogent o r philosophically de fen ­
sible and whether he may be accurately described as a “theologian
o f Juda ism ” lies outside o f the purview o f this essay. Nevertheless,
the cha llenge posed by Ruben ste in ’s works and the social-
psychological insights which he offers are worthy o f discussion,
analysis and response.
In some o f the works o f Emil Fackenheim, published du r ing
the 1970s, an analysis o f and a response to Rubenstein appears.
However, more than a polemic against Rubenstein, Emil Fac-
kenheim ’s works provide a sophistocated theological investiga­
tion into the problem o fJewish faith since the Holocaust and since
the b irth o f the State o f Israel. In
God’s Presence in History
Encounters Between Judaism and Modem Philosophy
(1973), and
more recently in
TheJewish Return into History: Reflections in theAge
ofAuschwitz and a NewJerusalem
(1978), Fackenheim expands and
develops many o f the themes set fo rth in his earlier
Questfor Past
and Future: Essays inJewish Theology
(1968). In his persistent p ro ­
bing into the na tu re and validity o f Jewish faith today, Fack­
enheim focuses much o f his atten tion upon the theological im­
plications o f the Holocaust and o f Israel. Unlike Rubenstein,
Fackenheim reaffirms many notions in classical Jewish theology
(e.g., a belief in a superna tu ra l, revealing God, active in hum an
history). Like Eliezer Berkovits, Fackenheim argues fo r “re ­
fused” Jewish faith ra th e r than refusing to accept notions en ­
demic to traditional Jewish theology.
Berkovits’ theological response to the Holocaust is stated in his
compelling, though somewhat diffuse,
Faith After the Holocaust
(1973). A collection o f essays, ra th e r th a n a un ified and systematic
Faith After the Holocaust
should be read along with Ber­
kovits’ earlier and more systematic work,
God, Man and History
(1959). T hough the Holocaust is barely m en tioned in
God, Man
and History,
many pivotal theological insights which appear in