Page 147 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 42

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The second type of pogrom iconography involved the depic­
tion of the pogrom itself. This could be done in symbolic guise, as
in Ephraim Moses Lilien’s
Dedicated to the Martyrs ofKishinev
of ca.
1903, in which an old man wrapped in a tallith, who is being
burned at the stake, is kissed by an angel carrying a T o rah .4 O r it
could involve actual depictions of a pogrom, as in Steinhardt’s
Pogrom I
Pogrom II
of 1913. In these works, Jews flee
persecutors who throw stones, beat those who fall with clubs and
threaten them with knives (fig. 2).5 These scenes were based on
Steinhardt’s childhood memories of the onset o f a pogrom in his
native Zerkow, and were inspired by the fears expressed in Ger­
man newspapers in 1913-14 that the Beilis trial might instigate
another round o f pogroms in Russia.6 Similar scenes of pogroms
in progress, which become more and more severe in their nature,
followed the events of the beginning of the war. Thus at the end
o f 1914, Max Lieberman did a drawing of a barefoot mother
screaming as she flees with her children, while in the background
two cossacks strike down a Jew. Lieberman sarcastically labeled
the drawing “To my loving Jews (the Tsar).”7 Even more striking
in their horrific effect are the drawings Abel Pann executed in
Paris in 1915-16 on the basis o f reports from the Eastern front:
glorified the participation o f Jewish soldiers in the German army as part o f an
appeal for equal rights (Jerusalem, Israel Museum,
Moritz Oppenheim,
1983-84, no. III.9 and pp. 23 and 27).
4 Ziva Amishai-Maisels, “The Jewish Jesus,
"Journal ofJewish Art,
vol. 9, 1982, p.
5 For the woodcut and etching versions o f these themes, see Leon Kolb,
Woodcuts o fJakob Steinhardt,
Los Angeles: Genuart, 1959, nos. 13-14; and Ziva
Jakob Steinhardt: Etchings and Lithographs,
Tel Aviv: Dvir,
1981, nos. 80-81. A painting o f this theme from 1913 is mentioned in
Steinhardt’s World War I diary as having been sold to a Mr. Fischer in
Frankfurt in 1918, but has since been lost.
6 Steinhardt’s childhood memories o f the start o f a pogrom which ended when
reason prevailed, are told in his unpublished autobiography and in Minni
Steinhardt’s unpublished biography o f her husband. Both these manuscripts,
as well as his war diaries, were made available to me through the kindness o f
Josefa Steinhardt Bar-On, to whom I am eternally grateful. For German fears
o f a Russian pogrom around the Beilis trial see Frank Pfemfert, “Deutsche
Juden ,”
Die Aktion,
no. 36, Sept. 6, 1913, p. 844, and his “Kiew,” ibid., no. 47,
Nov. 22, 1913, p. 1087; and Rene Schickele, “Zwischen den Kleinen Seen: ’Er
hat Christus gekreuzigt,’”
Die Weissen Blatter,
vol. 1, no. 5, Jan. 1914, pp.
Ost und West,
vol. 14, Sept.-Dee. 1914, pp. 641-42.