Page 35 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 42

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ments in Eretz Israel and has been evaluated on this basis. Israel
O p p e n h e im ’s s tu d y ,
The “He-Halu tz” Movement in Poland,
(Hebrew: Jerusa lem , 1982), seeks to exam ine the
formative years o f this movem ent against its own local back­
g round ra th e r than as an object o f Eretz Israel influence. T h e
Palestine-centered tren d does no t app ea r to discern, in sufficient
m easure, the d eep e r connections, in various areas, between Zion­
ist history in the Diaspora and the history o f Zionism and the
Yishuv. I t fails to realize tha t what existed was a he teronom ous
re la tionsh ip ra th e r than two sepa rate au tonom ous systems.
T h e comb ined a rea o f the history o f Eretz Israel and o f
Zionism, against the w ider backg round o f Jewish and general his­
tory and the Middle East,11 falls into several main categories:
1. Political and diplomatic history o f m andato ry Eretz Israel.
2. History o f the Eretz Israel Labor movement.
3. History o f o th e r parties and organized bodies.
4. Economic and social history.
5. Analysis o f specific periods in the history o f the Yishuv (e.g.
Dan Giladi,
The Yishuv During the Fourth Aliyah, 1924-1929
, an
economic and political study [Hebrew: Tel Aviv, 1973]).
6. Defense and military history o f Eretz Israel.
T h e most cultivated area is tha t o f political and diplomatic his­
tory. T h e struggle over the national and political fate o f Eretz Is­
rael is the main focus o f Zionist and non-Zionist historiography
for obvious reasons. T h e g radual open ing up o f British, Ameri­
can and o th e r archives has occasioned a long list o f works tha t
review the events o f the political struggle. Two valuable works on
the backg round o f the Balfour Declaration are: Isaiah Friedman ,
The Question of Palestine, 1914-1918: British-]ewish-Arab Relations
(New York, 1973), and Ronald Sanders,
The High Walls ofJerusa­
lem: A History of the Balfour Declaration
(New York, 1983).
O th e r studies have focused on British policy d u r in g the twen­
ties; the Partition Plan o f 1937 and the Zionist deba te concern ing
it; and more recently, British policy du r in g the forties. A com p re ­
hensive and up - to -d a te work on British policy in the years
11 See Yehoshua Porat and Yaakov Shavit (eds.),
The British Mandate and theJewish
National Home: The History of Eretz Israel,
Vol. IX (Hebrew: Jerusalem, 1982),
for an annotated survey o f publications in this area.