Page 83 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 43

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nal who wrote a Bible commentary and directed the first major
revision o f the Vulgate. For these purposes he needed a tool
which would enable him to check each word and its occurrences
throughout the text. This purpose as well as the desire to cite
passages according to the newly introduced division o f the text
into chapters and verses in theological disputations with Jews
were the twin motives for the compilation o f a work that had not
ever been attempted before. Hugo is said to have employed five
hundred o f his fellow Dominicans to collect the citations, and the
edition o f the work was completed in 1244. Needless to say, this
first concordance was neither complete (it listed only nouns, ad­
jectives and verbs) nor was it free o f errors and omissions. It was
therefore revised in 1290 by the Franciscan monk Arlotto di
Prato, whose edition was henceforth widely used. In the same
year, a German theologian, Conrad o f Halberstadt,23 also com­
piled a concordance based on the one by Hugo. It became the
first such work to be issued in print, and went through several
editions even before the end o f the 15th century.24 It was soon
followed by another edition which combined Conrad’s work with
that o f a much later concordance o f particles, compiled by the
Spanish canon Johannes de Segovia in 1431.25
Contrary to the expectations o f the Church, only very few Jews
converted as a result o f theological disputations held in Spain,
France, Italy, and Germany at the command o f ecclesiastical and
23 There were two theologians by that name, now known as “the elder” and “the
younger”; both flourished at the end o f the 13th century, and it is not clear
which o f the two was the compiler o f the concordance.
24 Conradus de Halberstadt.
Fratris Conradi de Alemania . . . concordantiae
Strassburg: Johann Mentelin, 1470. Later editions: Strassburg:
Mentelin, 1474; Reutlingen: Michael Greyff, 1481; Niirnberg: Anton
Koberger, 1485; Speyer: Peter Drach, 1485.
nr. 7417-21.)
25 Conradus de Halberstadt.
Concordantiae bibliorum.
Joannes de Secubia.
Concordantiae partium indeclinabilium
. . .
edidit Sebastianus Brant. Basel:
Johann Froben &Johann Petri, 1496.
nr. 7422). The editor was
also the author o f the famous satire
Das Narrenschiff,
published two years
earlier. Johannes de Segovia was asked by the theologians o f the Council o f
Basel in 1430 to compile a concordance o f particles, as an aid in the contro­
versy with the Eastern Orthodox Church regarding the Holy Ghost, which
centered on the meaning o f the conjunctions