Page 209 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 48

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WIENER/JEWISH LITERARY ANNIVERSARIES
201
inary; in Israel he did the same for international conferences on
Zionism and the Jewish condition today. Among his own writings
are
Israel, Its Role in Civilization
(1956, 1977),
The Emergence of Con­
servative Judaism
(1963, 1977), and
I Am a Jew
(1979), a personal
statement of his beliefs. He has also authored a number of Hebrew
works.
S
imon
D
ubnow
.
50th anniversary of death. Born in Mstislavl, Russia,
in 1860, murdered in Riga, Latvia, December 8, 1941. A self-
taught Jewish historian, he challenged the conventional interpre­
tation of Jewish history as that of a religious group. He considered
the Jews a nation, although he was opposed to Zionism, preferring
a diaspora nationalism. He wrote a monumental history of the
Jews in Russian, which was translated into German, Hebrew, and
Yiddish, and finally also into English
(History of the Jews,
1967-73).
Other works in English translation are:
History of the Jews in Russia
and Poland
(1916-20, 1975) and
A Short History of the Jewish People
(1936).
L
eopold
D
ukes
.
100th anniversary of death. Born in Bratislava,
Austria-Hungary, now Czechoslovakia, in 1810, died in Vienna,
Austria, August 3, 1891. A modern Jewish scholar, who devoted
his efforts to the study of medieval Hebrew literature, he also
produced the first translation o f Rashi’s commentary on the Torah
into German. He likewise wrote about medieval Hebrew poetry
and edited various texts from manuscripts, among them,
Treasures
o f Oxford
(1851).
J
acob
F
rank
.
200th anniversary of death. Born in Korolevo, Russia,
in 1726, died in Offenbach, Germany, December 10, 1791. From
a well-to-do family, he travelled in the Balkans and to Turkey,
where he came under the influence of the followers of Sabbetai
Zevi, the Messianic pretender of a century earlier. Gradually he
assumed the mantle of his predecessor and developed a doctrine
in opposition to Rabbinic Judaism. He was favored by some Cath­
olic bishops in Poland, who arranged disputations between him
and traditional rabbis. Eventually he converted to Christianity. Yet
his group persisted as a separate Jewish sect for some time after
his death.
S
imon
F
rug
.
75th anniversary of death. Born in Kherson, Russia, in
1860, died in Odessa, Russia, September 22, 1916. One of the
earliest Jewish writers in Russian on Jewish themes, he first wrote
poetry in that language, but later turned to Yiddish. Many of his
poems were set to music and proved very popular. His collected
Russian poems were translated into Hebrew.
A
ryeh
L
eib
F
rumkin
.
75th anniversary of death. Born in Kelme, Lith­
uania, in 1845, died in Petah Tikvah, Palestine, June 9, 1916. An