Page 126 - Jewish Book Annual Volume 49

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fe ren t form took hold in Canada where it was applied by H.H.
Stern du ring the years 1968-83.14 In Israel this approach was
adop ted by L. Weinbach and S. Brosh in their textbook for
the in term ediate and advanced levels,
Omanut ha-Siah
(The A rt
o f Conversation, 1986).
A second trend o f the Communicative Approach, which was
developed especially in Canada, was less analytical. It stressed
the providing o f opportun ities for natura l communication in
the language. During the past decade there was developed in
Canada the
Ta l Sela
approach (directed by T. Shimon), in which
each learning unit is based on a chosen literary selection for
which exercises and questions are provided. T h e chief failing
o f the approach has to do with the grad ing o f its materials and
its emphasis on literature at the expense o f systematic language
study and Jewish sources in Hebrew.
The special aspects o f Hebrew language instruction in the
Diaspora must lead us to d ifferen tiate between all-day schools
(and intensive adu lt ulpanim) and af ternoon schools. It is clear
that in the afternoon school setup it is unfeasible to make speak­
ing the main objective because o f the lack o f time. The a f te r­
noon school and short adu lt courses would do be tter to make
reading their main objective, with provision for concentration
on their chief areas o f interest, such as the study o f the S iddur
and Humash, o r modern Hebrew, o r a combination o f both.
In o rd e r to be most effective the language reading materials
should be graded on the basis o f vocabulary frequency studies
and common g ramm ar and syntax usages.
In all-day schools and intensive ulpanim Hebrew speaking
can continue to serve as an objective. But here, too, one cannot
adop t a uniform program for all Diaspora schools bu t must
in each instance choose the learning materials and grade them
on the basis o f a comparative study o f the s tructure o f Hebrew
and the native language o f the pupils. It must also be adap ted
to the various age levels and needs o f d iffe ren t communities.
As for the method o f instruction, one can recommend an ec­
14. Stern H.H., “Psycholinguistics and Second Language Teaching,” in
tives o f Second Language Teaching
(Toronto, 1970).